What is Tether Coin? Who Owns Tether USDT? Cryptocurrency Tether Explained For Dummies

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Both fiat currencies like the US dollar and euro experience inflation and purchasing power losses, but because these variations are typically so low, they can continue to be used day by day.

What is Tether currency?

The frequent swings in cryptocurrencies are exacerbated, rendering them useless for commercial usage. Although fluctuations fuel the use of a cryptocurrency as a speculative asset, its utility as an exchange medium is limited. Cryptocurrencies became mainstream media when the notorious Silk Road was used as a platform for the dark web and eventually shut down. It was not an investment option at the time for retail investors, but soon they fell in love with the price fluctuations.

Immediately, worldwide banking and financial institutions had a view on cryptocurrencies. It was all talked about. Volatility described cryptocurrencies as a potential commodity that could become commonplace one day. Volatility may, however, also be a double-edged sword. It can attract investors if prices rise, as happened in November 2017 when prices shot over the roof.

It can also result in an investment exodus, as it did this year, which sheds more than 50% of its $13,000 year-end price. The harmful effects of the price drops were also felt in the economy, as they impacted the volumes of the crypto industry and interest.

To see a world in which cryptocurrencies are used day by day, uncertainty has to be resolved, and Tether is at stake. Tether is a stable coin designed to be stable enough or at most somewhat inflationary in terms of buying power to incentivize owners to spend rather than keep tokens. Tether is a fiat-based cryptocurrency, in its simplest form, in which the US dollar safe coins like Tether are important in everyday transactions. Otherwise, a seller is wary of trade in goods and services because of fear of loss of value due to price volatility — one of the reasons why cryptocurrencies are still not widely accepted. As Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin, some have been used for online payment transactions. Nonetheless, they have not been successful in making daily transactions due to high price volatility.

Tether brings a comparative advantage that its predecessors have failed to bring to the table–that means that the interest of fiat currencies can be transformed into crypto-coins so that they can exchange with them.

It was released at its inception on the Bitcoin blockchain before its transition to the Litecoin blockchain using the Omni Layer Protocol. As a new crypto-monetary project, Tether ranks #15 among the highest market caps (around USD 2 billion).

What is Tether?

Tether is a “stable coin” hybrid crypto-fiat, the value of which is related to the US dollar and other fiat currency. It is an asset issued by Tether Limited and operates as a token provided by the blockchain on the Omni protocol. -Omni transaction (including Tether) is documented as a rule in a Bitcoin transaction with the same hash transaction.


With an overwhelming amount of USDT tokens already distributed on the Omni network, Tether has the lion’s share of over 90% of Omni’s transactions, among other coins, on the same protocol.

Tether is the world’s most popular stablecoin, and it also operates on prominent exchanges like Bitfinex and Poloniex as a dollar replacement. For USD help for each released Tether, there is an equivalent amount of dollars kept in reserve.

Nevertheless, the United States. The dollar is not immune to changes in the structure of the world market.

The importation of tether currency helps reduce the uncertainty of cryptocurrencies and allows ready consumers to use cryptocurrencies as fiat money. As a result, the value will not be subject to variance because it should remain equal to $1. The Euro is also a currency, which has a strong token because of the influence of the EU, which also controls a large percentage of the world’s financial market.

Since explaining it using an appropriate concept, Tether has some advantages over other cryptocurrencies.

Transit Cryptocurrency:

Tether allows real cash to be converted to digital cash. Considering the safe payments that blockchain provides. Converting into cryptocurrencies is also easier than standard fiat. Tether also has the as to buy cheap cryptocurrencies when the market falls.


A good number of platforms working with cryptocurrencies enhanced their platforms after they adopted Tether. Platforms that initially lacked the wherewithal to use the U.S. dollar, use Tether instead, allowing them to open up to new markets.

Formidable Backup:

The market stability of your investment in cryptography is guaranteed by using Tether as a backup fund. The amount of Tether in circulation is equal to the backup funds.

How does tether stay at $1?

Hong Kong-based Tether Limited keeps fiat in deposits that it claims to be the equivalent of tether in circulation using a one-to-one ratio. In other words, Tether Limited is a trustworthy third party to the properties. The complexity of both crypto and fiat audits is minimized by a straightforward execution that does not impact the protection and transparency of audits.

Tether’s Technology Stack


Tether is a multifaceted network for several digital assets and the currencies embedded in the blockchain. Tether runs on the Omni protocol. Each 1 USDT is worth $1 and can be exchanged for 1$ in fiat currency at any time. That’s the theory, but that’s not how it works.

Likewise, an authorized customer who wires USD to Kraken’s bank account will earn a USDT of $1 per tether. Users can also exchange cryptocurrencies for Tether on a trading platform.

The Company will loan the wallet of the user with its tether equivalence following deposits made into Tether’s Limited bank accounts with fiat currencies, thereby allowing the user to use tether as he wants. Tether has however stopped collecting deposits since 18 April 2017 as a result of the token citing issues with its Taiwanese banks.

Tether is defined as a secure network and a decentralized system. Looking at its operating structure, it is clear that the system depends on the Tether’s capacity and readiness to sustain the currency link. If one exchange can not access the USD reserves assigned to customers who are interested in selling USDT, it is therefore important to connect the exchange to USD within a reasonable period. This also makes Tether more of a fully centralized system that runs contrary to what it says.

What is Tether used for?

Tether’s primary aim is to ensure liquidity and a hedge against market volatility. The tokens are attached to a fiat, ensuring that interest and stability should not be lost as with other tokens.

The stablecoin is also less volatile than traditional cryptocurrencies. Its importance as an alternative to fiat is a great advantage that traders and investors can not overemphasize. Tether offers many investors a way to park their investments when the market is weird, especially in countries where conversion from cryptocurrencies to fiat is an issue.

Price Stability

The uncertainty of cryptocurrencies is a known feature, and a stable coin stands out as the’ star bride.’ Traders of smaller altcoins with no readily available liquid market appreciate this benefit. There are several complexities and risks associated with the trading of a volatile currency. Through playing this scenario you will appreciate the importance of these complications.


The Bitfinex Connection

The link between Bitfinex and Tether has been rumored in the media. All companies have the same CEO, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer, and General Advisor. Philip Potter and Giancarlo Devasini were reported by the latest Paradise Papers leak as the people behind the saddle, and analysts who followed the phenomenon did not take this surprise.

New Tether funds often flow to Bitfinex, so it is easier to understand why both firms endured a banking relationship freeze in fiat business following the withdrawal of the U.S. Bank and Wells Fargo.

As a result, Bitfinex is now rejecting US customers as its transactions are no longer denominated in US dollars. Alternatively, it uses USDT exclusively.

A paper entitled’ Is Bitcoin still un-Tethered?Two university professors John M. Griffin and Amin Shams (GRIFFIN and SHAMS*) from the University of Texas presented the paper in June 2018, explaining the driving forces behind the crypto-market boom.

Researchers argued that Bitfinex supplies Tether to the market regardless of demand. They failed in this move, creating artificial demand for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies— pushing up prices similar to the inflationary effect of printing more money. If prices fall, they may convert tether to Bitcoin, driving Bitcoin up, sell and fill the Tether reserves. When prices fall, they have a default “put option” on redeeming tether, or they can say that the tether’s or related dollars have vanished.

The table below displays Tether’s printing events from March 2017 to July 2018, the accumulated printed red tether, the rise in the price of bitcoin and the question of Bitfinex / Tether subpoena on 6 December 2017. Bitcoin prices are obtained in this graph as 1-hour candlesticks.



Tether’s Issuance

There have been speculations about the role of Tether in the price increase of Bitcoin that reached $11,000 in early 2018. One of the leaders who gave credence to this choice was the founder of Litecoin, Charlie Lee. His Twitter post on Nov 30 reads:

“It’s troubling that the recent increase in prices was sponsored by printing the USDT (Tether) which does not fund a bank account with USD.”


The figure above shows Tether’s accumulated flow from the Tether genesis block to 31 March 2018. All translations of Tether are classified as transactions on the Omni Layer with coin ID 31.

Tether’s rich list obtained the identities of the exchange, and its edge thickness is proportionate to the flow size between two nodes. The curvature of the edges indicates Tether’s movement from the sender to the receiver. Every node is proportional to each node’s aggregate input and outflow.

The diagram above provides a vivid insight into Tether’s structure and how it was made. All Tethers printed by Tether Limited (bottom red node) are first transferred to Bitfinex.

It all starts from here before it is spread over the network. One interesting detail in the graph is the inflow back to the original Tether node, which shows why it was impossible to sell the issuer’s back with the company in exchange for U.S. dollars to prevent bad actors from using the network.

The small yellow node at the top of the graph, Kraken, became the de facto exchange in 2017 for USD-USDT trading pairs, even though Tether’s volume was significantly smaller than that of other cryptos, in particular bitcoin, that were delivered to the Tether network.

Another interesting detail is the connection between Poloniex and Bittrex, two of Tether’s largest exchanges, and their close links to Bitfinex via a huge Tether flow to and from Bitfinex.

The USDT in circulation rose by almost 9,000 percent as of February 2017, from around $25 million to more than $2.8 billion at the end of January 2018. Tether released an additional 775 million tethers in December 2017, a 52.5% rise in its total supply, right after the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) subpoenaed Tether and Bitfinex on 6 December 2017.

The Griffin and Sham study found that by February 2018, Bitfinex sent 2.99 billion Tether to Poloniex and Bittrex while the two exchanges returned 1,89 billion Tether to Bitfinex, with the remaining 1,11 billion Tether originally sent from Bitfinex.

Unusual Tether Market on Kraken

Kraken, a designated USD-USDT trading spot, had an unusual activity, raising red flags. The Bloomberg article “Crypto Coin Tether Defies Logic on Kraken’s Market, The Red Flags” of 29 June 2018 reported that the Tether price did not respond to the market economy of supply and demand. Despite the large and small requests to buy or sell the coin on Kraken, the price of Tether remained unchanged.


Research on Kraken’s public order book covering more than 56,000 trades on the digital asset network from 1 May to 22 June was performed by the report’s authors. The knowledge was also exchanged with Professor of New York University and Director of the Rosa Abrantes-Metz Global Economics Group and former Bank Examiner Mark Wilhelm Williams. Both economists concluded, according to the Bloomberg report, that something was happening in Kraken.

The study underlined a trade for 13,076,389 Tethers, which it notes is rare when other orders are set at five decimals. This particular exchange had three decimal places, suspected of being connected to automated trading systems by Abrantes-Metz and Williams.


On 1 July 2018, Kraken fought back with a blog post entitled “On Tether: Journalists Defy Logic, Raising Red Flags,” where he pointed out that the authors of Bloomberg are incompetent in their understanding of basic market concepts. Kraken argued, claiming that Bloomberg’s analysis failed to realize the apparent stability of USDT which is not as volatile as it was then The exchange also debunked the argument that the digital asset market is being abused by arguing that it “operates a network that is open and fair to consumers.”


Controversies with Well Fargo

Bitfinex has announced its decision to withdraw its service to U.S. customers due to its cost of operation as a result of the Wells Fargo and co’s decision in Taiwan early in 2017 to relieve itself of the position of a corresponding bank between U.S. customers and Tether’s banks. Subsequently, both Bitfinex and Tether filed a suit against Wells Fargo, but the case was withdrawn when it seemed that further scandals could crack their seams.

Wells Fargo documents revealed the existence, in the Bitfinex / Tether link, of four Taiwanese banks. Nonetheless, Bitfinex’s and Tether’s spokesperson Ronn Torossian refused to identify specific banks of the sector unless reporters interested in understanding them signed a non-disclosure agreement. Thereafter, the bid was rejected.

Bitfinex was affiliated with Spoldzielczy Bank in Skierniewice from media reports and online records, but the authenticity of these documents was never verified, as Torossian refused to comment.

Efforts made by Chief Executive Officer Wladyslaw Klazynski to verify the authenticity of those papers met with a brick wall because of Polish Financial Law which prohibits persons disclosing customer information. He was nevertheless quoted as maintaining that his business “is not financially associated” with any Bitcoin trading venture.

Also, Bitfinex and Tether administrative management and location have not been disclosed on their respective websites or in any public document.

Paradise Papers

Leaked by the IRJ, these documents point to Phil Potter, a graduate of Yale University, as Tether’s President and Bitfinex ‘ chief strategy officer. He started his work as a derivatives analyst with Morgan Stanley before he moved to Bear Stearns Cos., where he worked in the private customer service unit on technology infrastructure and software design.

In 2013, Bitfinex was founded in Hong Kong but subsequently, as revelated by Companies Registry in Hong Kong, changed its name to Renrenbee Ltd one year later. Giancarlo Devasini is listed by the Companies Registry as the Renrenbee President. The Paradise Papers also unlikely to name him as the owner of Tether, suggesting further that both businesses are not separate entities, as we all feel and regulated with the same group of people.

Litany of Disappointments

CEO Oguz Sedar of a media technology company in Turkey saw wisely that he transferred his funds to tether following a frightening decline in Bitcoin prices, in which he had saved. At first, his solace was on PayPal, but things went awry after Turkey expelled PayPal in 2017. His offer to obtain $1 million of tether was denied in November.

E-mail excerpts sent to him read:

“We can only handle requests for confirmed corporate customers because of ongoing banking problems.”

With the idea of reserves, Sedar wanted to know with whom Tether was banking, but the company refused to reveal its fund, instead proposing sale on one of the trading partners listed on its website.

He looked at it and there appeared over a dozen titles, but only a few allowed investors to swap tether for dollars. Kraken was one viable option, but Serdar was skeptical about the ability to deal with his company.

At the end of the day, Serdar was accused by Tether due to the numerous incidents in which he was allegedly involved. Serdar transmitted all that followed to the United States. Department of Treasury and Justice via an online tip page, but no response has yet been provided.

Influential Bitfinex and Tether critics accused both firms of conducting a fractional reserve system where assets are equivalent to a fraction of their deposit liabilities. It ensures that more USDT is released in Fiat dollars than the appreciated reserves. Critics argue that this is obscured by the manipulation of Bitcoin prices to manipulate the market.

Despite Tether’s self-reported accounts, which indicated excess reserves, coupled with his good health statement from the September 2017 audit release, skepticism remains skeptical about the findings. Nonetheless, an exchange of Bitifnex’s power is possible and is in the range of one billion dollars, which is large enough to help Tether.

In cases such as Tether, distinguishing truth from fiction can be difficult. While this is not inferred, the case of Serdar represents the unreliability of Tether in USD convertibility. The organization is not obligated to serve customers who are reportedly incomplete.

After the collapse between Wells Fargo and Bitfinex in 2017, USDT production rose sharply. The growing demand in Bitcoin was also found as a factor in the circulation of the USDT.

Controversies Surrounding Decentralization

In November 2017, Tether reported that $30.95 was hacked. The article that was first published on his website was deleted after he later claimed it was being recovered to make sure they did not enter the mainstream cryptocurrency sector. The assertion of Tether’s decentralization was investigated by the “quarantined” address, above which the amount is stored in hacked funds and frozen by the company.

Encounter with U.S. Federal Regulators

On December 6, the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission submitted subpoenas to the Bitfinex and Tether virtual currency exchange amid incomplete proof of the public’s holding.

While Bitfinex is not a US-based company, it has US-based customers. Tether’s legal status was a subject of debate with many opponents who claimed he could face the US closure of a Bittrex-led sled.

Nonetheless, there were no official announcements from Tether or the U.S. Regulators and this also added more confusion to the public.

Final Words

Many would have preferred Tether not to succeed in the fourth quarter of the year, but this is here. Nevertheless, for US authorities it is a sitting duck if they intend in any event to move on suspected cases of money laundering. This can be done against any financial company irrespective of the degree of guilt. Tether’s dependence on a formal banking arrangement is more like a puzzle which opens a can of controversy if it is further explored.

In summary, the overarching challenges far outweigh any power that has made it popular since it started working.

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